The data on cost across varied settings may prove useful for programme decision-making and as inputs to future modelling studies and economic evaluations of decision analytic studies. Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.
AaaCookie January 11, 2011 In addition to incremental and average costs, many economists today also like to consider the concept of the “actual” cost. In an actual cost, we consider things like societal or environmental costs suffered by the community because of some form of production. For example, if a company pays its employees the lowest possible wage per hour, it will lower their incremental cost.
7.2 Economic Thickness by Algebraic Solution
As regards the median, in twelve out of sixteen countries (75%), the values were distributed below 0.5 times GDP per capita . WTP/QALY values were converted to international dollars in 2019 using purchasing power parity and the inflation rate; PPP values were taken from the International Monetary Fund database, and the US Inflation Calculator was used to adjust for inflation . WTP/QALY was calculated using Euro, but where the country’s currency was not Euro, it has been converted using PPP value as EU. The EU PPP was taken from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development .
The most cost-effective overall whole house design does not result from using just the most efficient or the least costly efficiency measures but from the least cost combination of all measures. As Incremental Cost the efficiency of a home is improved, there are discrete transition points where the next step in efficiency improvement in one component generates a reduction in the cost of another component.
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The current, widely known WHO criteria seem high when compared to the results of this study. However, greater spending usually means that more medical technology becomes available. Even spending a large amount of money is expected to improve people’s health and advance the development of medical technology. For this reason, we think that the threshold criteria currently being applied should not be lowered. According to the WHO-recommended threshold, less than the GDP per capita is rated as “highly effective” and from one to three times GDP per capita as “cost-effective” . The former assessment is based on the assumption that if an intervention can produce one QALY per year at the cost of less than the GDP per capita, the resulting value-added will exceed the cost of the investment .
Cost data were collected from programmes in Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zambia. Cost data collection used a bottom-up approach, meaning that where possible, an ingredients approach was utilized, and the price and quantity of all inputs were estimated. Where this information was not available, line item aggregated expenditures https://www.wave-accounting.net/ from the IRS programmes were utilized directly. The cost analysis takes the provider perspective and estimates the gross cost of 3GIRS implementation with Actellic®300CS. Much of the time, private and social costs do not diverge from one another, but at times social costs may be either greater or less than private costs.
The setting of thresholds can affect access to health care and the use of public funds. For this reason, we think it is better to reflect people’s intentions/preferences in setting the threshold.
In the future, as more WTP/QALYs are calculated around the world, this kind of analysis may provide clearer insights for setting policy. In the comparison of median WTP/QALYs and GDP per capita, most values were in the range of 0.5 times or less. Furthermore, the median value was lower than the mean value in all countries. This result is similar to that reported by Song et al and implies that the distribution of WTP is skewed with a long tail to the right . Several previous studies have reported that WTP has larger values when people’s income is higher.
Estimation of impact and cost-effectiveness
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- Economies of scale occur when the average cost per unit declines as production increases.
- By this method, any one value of C can be estimated from the costs of two correspondingly successive thicknesses, with the understanding that the value applies to neither one, but may relate to a thickness about midway between them.
- For purposes of the example, it takes an employee an hour to make one large part.
- Represents this by showing how a combination of curves for separate technologies results in the cumulative effect of those technologies acting together as a system.
- Any patient who moves to a heart transplant state incurs the extra costs of the transplant .
- Improvements in medical technology and sanitation have significantly prolonged human life expectancy.
This is likely because the areas chosen for deployment of 3GIRS may have been specifically chosen due to their high malaria incidence and prevalence. This also indicates a more efficient use of resources than would have occurred had these programmes been deployed in lower-incidence areas of the countries. These results might not be maintained if the programmes were used in lower-incidence areas of the countries included in these studies. The adjustment was necessary as the effect estimates were measured among the entire population targeted, rather than only the population protected .
Definition of Incremental Cost
In such countries, the criterion of 0.5–1.5 times GDP shown in this study may be potentially suitable. If ⊿Cost/⊿QALY is less than the GDP per capita, the cost-effectiveness is excellent. However, if the CE threshold is set to less than the GDP per capita, the use of health technologies that theoretically have a higher return than the cost could be restricted. Therefore, an actual CE threshold of 1–1.5 times GDP per capita is considered to be an appropriate range. On the other hand, there is an example of a threshold of less than the GDP per capita. In Thailand, a threshold of 0.8 times GDP was set in 2007 when the list of essential medicines was created, and this threshold is used for price adjustment .
- Until recently, there has been limited evidence of the effectiveness of IRS programmes using 3GIRS products and little information available on their cost and cost-effectiveness in deployment at scale.
- The separation of fixed costs and variable costs and determination of raw material and labor costs also differs from organization to organization.
- Costs for capital goods were either treated by using a project-based lifetime or by annuitizing them with an item-specific lifetime.
- The current, widely known WHO criteria seem high when compared to the results of this study.
- The cost breakdowns for the power cost for the pelletized biomass show that the pellet cost is the major component, followed by capital recovery, maintenance, and pellet transportation costs.
Countries in the upper-middle-income group tend to have lower WTP/QALYs than those in the high-income group. When healthcare expenditure is low, the law of diminishing marginal utility suggests that the health value gained may be relatively high in relation to the cost.